Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile. It is popularly called “la linda”, the pretty one, for it's singular landscapes and pleasant weather. In the Lerma Valley is the provincial capital, summer daily temperatures are acceptably warm, while at night it’s necessary to wear a light coat.
In this region the main cycle of rains follow summer with strong downpours. Sometimes these affect the country roads, especially in mountainous regions. Winter, autumn and spring are ideal for birding because then the climate is warm and dry.
Salta has a horseshoe shape; from west to east from it falls from 6723 meters above sea level in Llullaillaco Mountain at La Cordillera de los Andes to 362 meters above sea level in San Ramón de la Nueva Oran in the Chaco woodlands. Its geography is special because the province encompasses six ecoregions, each with characteristic fauna and flora. The first ecoregion is Arid High Andes, Second is The Puna, third is The Prepuna, Fourth is The Monte Desert Scrub, fifth The Yungas Forests and six The Dry Chaco, with its uplands and wetlands areas.
There are 3 national parks in Salta: El Rey National Park in the Yungas jungle, Baritú National Park and Los Cardones National Park - Cuesta del Obispo is often the first port of call for birders visiting the province.
Birding the six eco-regions of Salta:
Birding the Arid High Andes
The Arid High Andes begin at 4400 meters and it go to the limit of eternal snow line, not practical for general birding but occasionally visited by experienced guides. It contains the high points in La Cordillera de los Andes, whose altitudes surpass 5000 and 6000 meters above sea level. Typical vegetation are hardy grasses, called ichu, capable of withstanding strong winds and extreme cold, and cushion plants which are adapted to the dry conditions of this region of largely exposed rocks. High altitude peatlands or bofedales are found in some areas with compact vegetation, grasses, rushes and sedges flooded by surface water or by the upwelling of underground acquifers.
San Antonio de Los Cobres, at 3775 m. is a good point to start exploring the High Andes.
From Cauchari to SW the road is going up to Socompa Pass crossing two bigs salt pits, Salar Pocitos and Salar de Arizaro. South of Santa Rosa de Los Pastos Grandes there are a pair of small lakes and a salt pit with a few rivers, mainly dry all year, but good for aquatic birds on some occasions.
Many birds with acuatic requirements struggle to find enough lakes such as: Wilson's Phalarope, Lesser Yellowlegs, Baird's Sandpiper, Golden Plover, Diademed Sandpiper Plover, Twany-throated Dotterel, Greater Yellowlegs, Andean Snipe, Common Gallinule, White-backed Stilt, Speckled Teal, Yellow-billed Pintail, Torrent Duck, Crested Duck, American Coot, Andean Goose, Chilean Flamingo, Andean Ruddy Duck, Puna Plover, Southern Pochard, Puna Teal, Andean Gull, Silvery Grebe, White-tufted Grebe, Puna Flamingo, Horned Coot, Andean Coot, Andean Lapwing, Cinnamon Teal, Andean Flamingo, Giant Coot, Andean Avocet.
Birds represent 60% of total fauna of this area, many of them are ascending birds of the puna. More common birds include Ornate Tinamou, Puna Tinamou, Andean Condor, Turkey Vulture, Puna(Variable) Hawk = Red backed Hawk, Mountain Caracara, Southern(Crested) Caracara, Aplomado Falcon, Peregrine Falcon, Rufous bellied Seed Snipe, Gray breasted Seed Snipe. Golden spotted Ground Dove, Bare faced Ground Dove, Gray hooded & Mountain Parakeet, Horned Owl, Band tailed Nightjar, Andean Swift, White sided Hillstar, Andean Hillstar, Giant Hummingbird, Andean Flicker. Common Miner, Creamy rumped Miner, Puna Miner, Rufous banded & Slender billed Miner, Rock Earthcreeper, Scale-throated & Straigh-billed Earthcreeper, White-winged Cinclodes, Steinbach's Canastero, Puna Canastero, Rusty-vented Canastero, Cordilleran Canastero, Plain mantled & Brown-capped Tit-Spinetail, D'Orbigny's Chat Tyrant, Black-billed Shrike Tyrant, White-tailed & Gray-bellied Shrike Tyrant, Puna Ground Tyrant, Ochre-napped Ground Tyrant, Plain-capped & Rufous-naped Ground Tyrant, Cliff Tyrant, Andean Negrito, Yellow-billed Tit Tyrant. Bank Swallow, Blue & White Swallow, Band-tailed Sierra Finch, Black-hooded Sierra Finch, Carbonated Sierra Finch, Red-backed Sierra Finch, Mourning Sierra Finch, Gray-hooded & Plumbeous Sierra Finch, Common & White-winged Diuca Finch, Short-tailed Finch, Tucuman Mountain Finch, Rufous-sided Warbling Finch, Bright-rumped Yellow Finch, Puna Yellow Finch, Greater Yellow Finch, Plain-colored Seedeater, Band-tailed Seedeater, Yellow-rumped Siskin and Black Siskin.
Birding the Puna
The Puna is an extended region formed as a big high plateau which is shared with Chile and Bolivia. Located in the west side of Salta, its altitudes ranges between 3400 and 3800 meters, including some slopes at 4400 meters, only surmounted in global records by Tibetan plateau. Environmental conditions in this area are very rigorous for animal life. There is little organic matter, there are extreme temperature fluctuations, rains are very scarce, humity is near nonexistent and there is an intense solar radiation. Nevertheless in this endorreic river basin, water goes to some central depressions forming lagoons and salt pits surrounded by grasses, low shrubs as tolillas, chijuas, espinales, tolas, añaguas, churquis, many species of cactus, yaretas, known as cushion plants, and the queñoa, Polylephis the only species of tree, which very scarse.
Here can be found: Ornate Tinamou, Brushland Tinamou, Puna & Andean Tinamous, Rufous-bellied Seed Snipe, Gray-breasted & Least Seed Snipes, Straigh-billed Earthcreeper, Rock Earthcreeper, Scale-throated Earthcreeper, Plain-breasted and Buff-breasted Earthcreeper. Also this is the area for Gray-bellied and Black-billed Shrike Tyrant.
Salta has a pair of small lagoons near Santa Rosa de los Pastos Grandes where it’s possible to find birds as White-tufted Grebe, Silvery & Pied-billed Grebe, Cattle Egret, White-faced & Puna Ibis, Chilean Flamingo, Andean & Puna Flamingo, Andean Goose, Speckled Teal, Crested Duck, Yellow-billed Pintail, Puna & Cinnamon Teal, Southern Pochard, Andean Ruddy Duck, Common Gallinule, Red-gartered Coot, Slate-colored Coot, Giant & Hornet Coot, White-necked Stilt, Andean Lapwing, Andean Avocet, Puna & Golden Plover, Twany-throated Dotterel, Common Snipe, Baird's & White-rumped Sandpiper, Wilson Phalarope, Lesser & Greater Yellowlegs, Pectoral & Stilt Sandpiper, Andean & Franklin Gull.
There are very large salt pits such as Salar de Arizaro, of 4500 square kilometers, or Salar de Pocitos, of 750 square kilometers and many others including Salar de Rio Grande, Salina de Llullaillaco, Salina de Incahuasi, Salar Tolillar, Salar Pozuelos, Salar Centenario, Salar del Rincón with spectacular landscapes, where Andean Condor are kings of the sky, looking for carrion as do Turkey Vulture and Southern Crested Caracara. On the rocks and shrubs there are many species of rodents and reptiles, which are hunted by Black-chested Buzzard Eagle, White-tailed Kite, White-tailed and Harris' Hawks, Long-winged & Cinereus Harrier. Whereas Mountain Caracara prefer to walk looking for meals, meanwhile American Kestrel, Aplomado Falcon, Puna Red-backed Hawk and Peregrine Falcon are moving into the air.
North of Route Nº 27, which is going to Socompa Pass (3878m.) from San Antonio de los Cobres (3775m.) is situated Los Andes Reserve protecting this interesting ecosystem where you can put your telescope up to see Lesser Puna Rhea, Bare-faced Ground Dove, Bared-eyed & Black-winged Ground Dove, Golden Spoted Dove, Gray-hooded & Mountain Parakeet, Burrowing & Short-eared Owl, White-collared & Andean Swift, Andean Hillstart, White-sided & Wedge-tailed Hillstar, Giant Hummingbird, Red-tailed Comet, Andean Flicker, Cream-winged & White-winged Cinclodes, Tufted & Plain-mantled Tit Spinetail, Tufted Tit Tyrant, Streak-fronted Thornbird, D'Orbigny's Chat Tyrant, Common Miner, Puna Miner, Rufous-banded & Slender-billed Miners, Cordilleran Canastero, Rusty-vented Canastero, Steinbach's & Cordoba Canastero and many Ground Tyrant such as Rufous-napped, White-browed, Puna, Ochre-napped, Cinnamon-bellied, Black-fronted, Dark-faced, Spot billed and Plain-capped Ground Tyrant.
San Antonio de los Cobres is a good base point to choose as it has many roads into the Puna as well as good services, accommodation and so forth. Visitors will need a 4DW or a very strong and high 2DW.
In this arid land many birds prefer to live in caves as do Andean, White-sided Hillstars, Giant Hummingbird, & Red-tailed Comet, which make its nests with mosses, lichens and feathers hanging in roots in rock caves. Andean Flicker, prefers to make its nest in ravines and Burrowing Owls whereever they find a crevice.
In The Puna there are 23 families of birds including Band-winged Nightjar, White-throated Cacholote, Andean Negrito, Spectacled Tyrant, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, White-browed & D'Orbigny's Chat Tyrant, Black Phoebe, White-rumped Swallow, Purple Martin, Blue & White Swallow, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, Tufted Tit Tyrant, Crested & Sandy Gallito, Short-billed Pipit, Yellowish Pipit, Correndera Pipit, Hellmayr's & Paramo Pipit, Patagonian & Brown backed Mockingbird, Chiguanco Thrust, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Black-hooded, Red-backed, Gray-hooded, Mourning, Plumbeoush, Ash-breasted and Band-tailed Sierra Finch, Gray-crested Finch, White-winged & Common Diuca Finch, Rufous-sided Warbling Finch, Grenish Yellow Finch, Puna Yellow Finch, Bright-rumped Yellow Finch, Citron-headed Yellow Finch, Plain-colored Seedeater, Thick-billed, Black, Hooded & Yellow-rumped Siskin.
The main problem birding in this area is altitude sickness with headaches, great tiredness and other physical distress. A local remedy is to e. Eat garlic or take garlic pills or onions or to take a Tea made from coca leaves for a better digestion. Avoid vegetables, milk, gassy drinks, or bread. And, please, go slowly. In this region, nature rules.
Another solution for altitude sickness is going down for acclimatization. In The Prepuna you will find many interesting birds that are moving to low and high levels and also some birds of The Puna going down in winter or in colder times.
Birding the Pre-Puna
Immediately below the level of the Puna, the Pre-Puna is a narrow fringe between 3400 meters to 2000 meters. In this region it is rainier, with around 200mm per year, mainly in summer. Consequently there is a shrubby steppe, an area of terrestrial bromeliaceas and diverse types of cactus. The most notorious is the big columnar cactus, the same that you can see in Los Cardones National Park, the prefered home for White-fronted Woodpecker. Others species of cactus are arboreal, shruby or trailing mixed with cushion cactuses or the curious saxatils cactus, living inside rock crevices.
Los Cardones National Park was funded in 1966 and in an area of 64,000ha, its preserves a small section of prepuna ecosystem.
In some protected gorges appear small forest of an acacia species called arca that grows 5 meters high, one spiny tree of the mesquite family, el churqui, of 4 meters high, and two shrubs called molle and chilca of 2 meters height. Here its possible to see more diverse birds in the vegetation, although birds that eat on the ground are the best represented in this ecoregion.
You can find here many birds of The Puna that are moving between high and low levels such as Lesser Rhea, Ornate, Brushland, Andean and Puna Tinamou, mixed with Darwin's Tinamou, Elegant-crested Tinamous that don't venture higher. Others are White-tufted Grebe, Least Grebe, Silvery & Pied-billed Grebe, White-faced & Bare-faced Ibis, Chilean Flamingo, Buff-necked Ibis, Wood & Maguari Stork, Speckled Teal, Yellow-billed Pintail, Blue-winged & Cinnamon Teal, Lake & Andean Ruddy Duck, Andean Condor, Turkey Vulture, Black Vulture, White-tailed Kite, Cinereus & Long-winged Harrier, Black-chested Buzzard Eagle, White-tailed Hawk, Red-backed & Harris' Hawk, Mountain, Chimango & Southern Crested Caracara, Aplomado & Peregrine Falcon, American Kestrel, Plumbeous Rail, Southern Lapwing, Tawny-throated Dotterel, Rufous-bellied, Gray-breasted and Least Seed Snipe, Spot-winged, Pale-vented & Band-tailed Pigeon, Bare-eyed, Black-winged and Golden Spotted Ground Dove, Mitred & Blue-crowned Parakeet, Gray-hooded & Mountain Parakeet, Ash-colored & Dark-billed Cuckoo, Barn Owl, Burrowing, Short-eared, Great-horned and Ferrugineous Pygmy Owl, Nacunda Nighthawk, Band-winged, Scissor-tailed & Little Nightjar, White-collared, Rothschild's, Ashy-tailed & Andean Swift, Andean & White-sided Hillstar, Sparkling Violetear, Gilded Sapphire, Giant Hummingbird, Red-tailed Comet, Glittering-bellied Emerald, Blue-tufted Starthroat, Ringed, Amazon & Green Kingfisher, Spot-backed Puffbird, White-barred Piculet, Andean Flicker, Golden-breasted Woodpecker, Field Flicker and White-fronted Woodpecker.
Also it's the area for Common Miner, Puna Miner, Rufous-banded Miner, Straigh-billed, Rock, Scale throated Earthcreeper, Buff-breasted Earthcreepers, Cream-winged & White-winged Cinclodes, Brown-capped Spinetail, Plain-mantled & Tufted Tit Spinetail, Azara's Spinetail, Cordilleran Canastero, Puna (Cordoba) Canastero, Rusty-vented Canastero, Steinbach's & Scribble-tailed Canastero, Streak-front Thornbird, White-throated Cacholote, Gray-bellied, Black-billed & White-tailed Shrike Tyrant.
In San Antonio de los Cobres, the Prepuna region extends east to a corridor of highlands ranged upon elevated peaks as Nevado del Acay, Cumbres del Obispo, Calchaquíes Mountain Range, Abra del Infiernillo, Aconquija Mountain Range.
North area of Valle Encantado, Piedra Molino, National Park Los Cardones are included in the region like Payogasta, La Poma (3015m) and Cachi (2280m), where you can see Rufous-naped, White-browed, Ochre-naped, Cinnamon-bellied, Black-fronted, Plain-capped, Cinerea & Spot-billed Ground Tyrant, Andean Tyrant, Spectacled Tyrant, Yellow-browed Tyrant, Andean Negrito, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, D'orbigny's & White-browed Chat Tyrant, Many-colored Rush Tyrant, White Monjita, Cattle Tyrant, Tufted Tit Tyrant, Crested & Sandy Gallito.
Another section of the Prepuna is found byt ascending La Quebrada del Toro from Salta City (1187m) to San Antonio de Los Cobres (3775m). In Campo Quijano the asphaltum road finishes, beginning a hard section, of more or less 25 kilometers, using the bed of the river until the track starts again on more stable ground. Vegetation progressively beginning to be smaller and more scarce, as you go up. Birds you will find are White-tipped Plantcutter, White-rumped & Blue & White Swallow, Purple Martin, Short-billed, Yellowish, Correndera, Hellmayr's & Paramo Pipit, Grass & House Wren, Patagonian Mockingbird, Chalk-browed Mockingbird, White-banded Mockingbird, Chiguanco & Creamy-bellied Thrush, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Black-hooded, Gray hooded, Mourning, Plumbeous, Red-backed, Ash-breasted & Band-tailed Sierra Finch, Common Diuca Finch, Short-tailed Finch, Rufous-sided Warbling Finch, Black and Rufous Warbling Finch, Tucuman Mountain Finch, Ringed Warbling Finch, Puna, Stripe-tailed, Bright-rumped, Greater, Greenish, Saffron & Grassland Yellow Finch, Great Pampa Finch, Band-tailed & Plain-colored Seedeater, Red-crested Finch, Golden-billed Saltator, Sayaca & Blue and Yellow Tanager, Long-tailed Meadowlark, Shiny Cowbird, Hooded Siskin.
Birding El Monte
The greater part of Argentinia's west side is a warm semi-desert, called El Monte. It occupies 410,000 square kilometers of valleys, oases and dry grasslands between Sierras Pampeanas and Cordillera de los Andes with first the foothills of Precordillera, extending from southwest Salta to the Patagonian steppe and reaching Atlantic Coasts.
In Salta, the Monte is going up near the borders of rivers as Santa María, Las Conchas and Calchaqui River and then ascending in the slopes of the hills as far as the cold of Prepuna. Quebrada del Toro, Los Cardones National Park and Cuesta del Obispo foot-hills are the most northern limits of this region.
The Monte is an arid steppe and its vegetation characterised by scrub, typical of a dry climate. This scrub is formed by resinous evergreen bushes of no more than 3 meters high, called jarillas. There are 4 jarillas species, jarilla hembra, jarilla macho, jarilla fina and falsa jarilla. These are always surrounded by pichanas, rodajillo, piquillin, brea, and retamo with relatives of mesquite el alpataco and la lata. All plants are very apart with wide spaces between then because they competed for water. Among the plants there are succulents on the floor, plants with tubercles or bulbs as wild irises and lilies and ephemerals. Near salty soils prosper the jume forming psammophilous and halophilous associations and for all sides there are many cacti species and bromeliaceas in xerophilous open woodland. In where are freatic waters were formed open forests of algarrobo dulce, sweet mesquite trees, near dry riverbeds or salar basins.
There are seasonal rains in summer with an average rainfall between 80 and 250 millimeters per year dropped in scarce torrential downpours. The tourist authority says that 'the sun lives here' because there are few cloudy days with an amazingly clear skies. Cafayate City guaranteed 345 sunny days for each year.
In Los Cardones National Park near Tin-Tin Valley, jarillas grow up to 3400 meters. The big cardones go up to 3200 meters in Cumbres del Obispo and 3600 meters in Cerro Tin Tin. In lower levels there is a unique association of Prosopis ferox, other mesquite called churqui, forms a forest.
From Salta City (1187m.), Provincial Road Nº 33 crossed the stunning Escoipe Gorge. The unpaved road, from El Maray, at 2000 meters, snakes its way upward to reach the Cuesta del Obispo ascending to 3600 meters at Piedra de Molino pass with a good view of the surrounding valleys. On the left are the Enchanted Valley and then the 15 kilometers of the Tin Tin straight descending until Payogasta, where Nacional Road Nº 40 goes down from La Poma to the town of Cachi (2280m), and upper Calchaqui's largest population center. Travelling south are Molinos (2020m), San Carlos, Cafayate (1660m) and many small villages steeped in folklore. Road 40 crosses into the nearby province of Catamarca. Cafayate, the principal tourim center, is a great place to taste good wines and enjoy the baroque and colonial architecture. From this town, paved National Road Nº 68, close the whole circuit of 520 kilometers, returning to Salta City.
Birds for this biome are : Greater & Lesser Rhea, Ornate, Brushland and Andean Tinamou, Darwin's & Elegans Crested Tinamou, Neotropic Cormorant, Least and Pied-billed Grebe, White-tufted & Silvery Grebe, Stripe-backed Bittern, Black-crowned Night Heron, Striated Heron, Cattle Egret, Snowy & Great Egret, Cocoi Heron, Wood & Maguary Stork, Buff-necked Ibis, White-faced Ibis, Chilean & Andean Flamingo, Andean Goose, Torrent Duck, Speckled Teal, Yellow-billed Pintail, White-cheeked Pintail, Silver Teal, Blue-winged & Cinnamon Teal, Andean Ruddy & Lake Duck, Andean Condor, Turkey, Black & King Vulture, Osprey, White-tailed & Missisippi Kite, Crane Hawk, Cinereus & Long-winged Harrier, Bicolored Hawk, Great Black Hawk, Crowned Solitary Eagle, Savanna Hawk, Puna (Variable) Red-backed Hawk, Black-chested Buzzard Eagle, Harris', Road Side, White-tailed Hawk, Mountain Caracara, Chimango & Southern Crested Caracara, Spot-winged Falconet, American Kestrel, Aplomado & Peregrine Falcon, Chaco Chachalaca, Limpkin, Plumbeous & Spotted Rail, Rufous-sided Crake, Common Gallinule, Red-gartered Coot, White-winged & Red-fronted Coot, Red-legged & Black-legged Seriema, Wattled Jacana, South American Painted Snipe, White-backed Stilt, Southern & Andean Lapwing, Golden Plover, Semipalmated Plover, Collared & Black-bellied Plover, Diademed Sandpiper Plover, Tawny-throated Dotterel, Hudsonian Goodwit, Upland Sandpiper, Greater, Lesser & Solitary Yellowlegs, Common Snipe, White-rumped Sandpiper, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Baird's & Pectoral Sandpiper, Wilson Phalarope, Least Seed Snipe, Andean & Franklin's Gull.
Picazuro Pigeon, Spot-winged & Band-tailed Pigeon, Pale-vented Pigeon, Eared Dove, Picui, Bare eyed, Black-winged & Golden-spotted Ground Dove, White-tipped & White-faced Dove, Blue-crowned Parakeet, Mitred Parakeet, Burrowing Parrot, Monk Parakeet, Gray-hooded & Mountain Parakeet, Scaly-headed Parrot, Ash-colored Cuckoo, Yellow-billed & Dark billed Cuckoo, Guira & Striped Cuckoo, Barn Owl, Tropical Screech & Great Horned Owl, Ferrugineous Pygmy Owl, Burrowing & Short-eared Owl, Common & Nacunda Nighthawk, Band-winged Nightjar, Little & Scissor-tailed Nightjar, Rothschild's Swift, White-collared Swift, Ashy-tailed & Andean Swift, Sparkling & White-vented Violetear, Glittering-bellied Emerald, Gilded Sapphire, White-bellied Hummingbird, Andean & White-sided Hillstar, Giant Hummingbird, Red-tailed Comet, Blue-tufted Starthroat, Ringed, Amazon & Green Kingfisher, Spot-backed Puffbird, White-barred Piculet, White-fronted Woodpecker, Checkered & Golden-breasted Woodpecker, Field & Andean Flicker.
Scimitar-billed & Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Common Miner, Rufous-banded & Slender-billed Miner, Chaco, Straight-billed, Scale-throated, Rock & Buff-breasted Earthcreeper, Cream-winged & White-winged Cinclodes, Rufous Hornero, Brown-capped Tit Spinetail, Tufted & Plain-mantled Tit Spinetail, Azara's, Sooty-fronted, Pale-breasted and Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Short-billed, Cordilleran, Puno Canastero, Maquis, Rusty-vented, Steinbach's and Puna (Cordoba) Canastero, Streak-fronted and Spot-breasted Thornbird, Lark-like Brushrunner, Wrenlike Rushbird, Brown & White-throated Cacholote, Gray-bellied Shrike Tyrant, Black-billed & White-tailed Shrike Tyrant, White Monjita, Black-crowned Monjita, Rufous-naped, White-browed, Ochre-naped, Cinnamon-bellied, Black-fronted, Plain-capped, Cinereous, Dark-faced & Spot-billed Ground Tyrant, Rufous-backed Negrito, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, D'Orbigny's, White-browed Chat Tyrant, Black Phoebe, White-winged Black Tyrant, Spectacled Tyrant, Vermillon Flycatcher, Cattle Tyrant, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Variegated Flycatcher, Streaked & Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Great Kiskadee, Rufous Casiornis, Cliff Flycatcher, Dinelli's & Subtropical Doradito, Many-colored Rush Tyrant, Yellow-billed and Tufted Tit Tyrant, Greater Wagtail Tyrant, White-crested Tyrannulet, White-throated Tyrannulet, White-bellied Tyrannulet, White-crested Elaenia, Large Elaenia, Slaty Elaenia.
Crested & Sandy Gallito, Olive-crowned Crescentchest, White-tipped Plantcutter, Crested Becard, White-rumped Swallow, Brown-chested Martin, Purple & Southern Martin, Blue and White Swallow, Tawny-headed Swallow, Barn & Bank Swallow, Short-billed, Yellowish, Correndera, Hellmayr's & Paramo Pipit, Grass & House Wren, Chalk-browed, Brown-backed, Patagonian & White-banded Mockingbird, Rufous-bellied, Chiguanco & Creamy-bellied Thrush, Masked Gnatcatcher, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Grassland & Stripe-capped Sparrow, Black-hooded, Gray-hooded, Mourning, Plumbeous, Red-backed, Ash-breasted & Band-tailed Sierra Finch, Black-crested, Common Diuca, Short-tailed Finch, Rufous-sided, Black and Rufous & Cinnamon Warbling Finch, Tucuman Mountain Finch, Ringed & Black-capped and Black & Chestnut Warbling Finch, Puna Yellow Finch, Bright-rumped Yellow Finch, Greater Yellow Finch, Greenish Yellow Finch, Saffron & Grassland Yellow Finch, Great Pampa Finch, Rusty-collared & Double-collared Seedeater, Band-tailed & Plain-colored Seedeater, Many-colored Chaco Finch, Red-crested Finch, Red-crested Cardinal, Golden-billed Saltator, Rusty and Slaty Flower Piercer, Dull-colored Grassquit, Tropical Parula, Rufous-browed Pepper-shrike, Golden-winged Cacique, White-browed Blackbird, Yellow-winged Blackbird, Long-tailed Meadowlark, Bay-winged Cowbird, Screaming & Shiny Cowbird, Hooded & Black Siskin, House Sparrow.
Birding the Yungas
The Yungas, which extends across Jujuy and Salta provinces, cover just two percent of Argentine territory but is home to half of its biodiversity with more than 60 percent of Argentina's bird species.
The best area for birds in Jujuy is Calilegua National Park and in Salta is Baritú and El Rey National Parks. To reach El Rey from the city of Salta there is 100 kilometers road south by route Nº 9 to Paso de la Cruz, the unique entrance at the Park. From there are 48 kilometers of gravel road to the portal of the park and another 10 km to bring one to the Park HQ, crossing many rivers by fords, sometimes too deep for conventional cars. In summer torrential rains render this road a muddy track.
Climate in the Park is Subtropical Highlands but with a dry season. The best time to visit this area is in winter and spring or thye dry season from May through October. The rainy season, with 1000mm to 3000mm annual precipitation, is from November to April, during summer and autumn.
The horseshoe shaped valley of the Park gives lodging to 255 species of birds that visitors can find visiting its eight trails on foot, on horseback and, where possible, in vehicles, preferably trucks.
These montane forests have altitudes from 700 to 2300 meter above sea level, forming a huge amphiteatre surrounded by natural boundaries composed of highlands like Cresta de Gallo, Maiz Gordo, Centinela, Piquete and Santa Barbara. Inside the Yungas, El Rey is the unique protected area that in the same region meets with the Chaco woodland at the lower levels, forming a transitional area called the Chaqueño Serrano Zone. Here its possible to see Red-legged Seriema, Chaco Chachalaca together with Toco Tucan, Plush-crested Jay or Dusky-legged Guam.
La Selva Basal (900-1200m) has typically taller vegetation with more developed understory than the lower forest. The canopy is dominated by cedro, tarco, tipa, nogal and many other trees and shrubs.
Near La Selva de Mirtaceas (1200-1600m) is a forest dominated by trees in the Mirtaceae family and palo barroso, alpamato, chalchal and güili, replaced, at higher elevations, by Pine Forests dominated by Podocarpus, then Alnus Forests and finally Polylepis Forest and grasslands.
The main breeding period for birds occurs in the park between October and December and coincides with fruit production that reaches a peak during November to January when young are raised.
Some more common birds are: Tataupa Tinamou, Least Grebe, Neotropic Cormorant, Black-crowned Night Heron, Whistling Heron, Cattle Egret, Buff-necked Ibis, Muscovy Duck, Comb Duck, Masked Duck, Brazilian Duck, Ruddy Duck, Southern Screamer, Andean Condor, Turkey Vulture, Black Vulture, King Vulture, Osprey, Swallow-tailed Kite, Great Black Hawk, Harris Hawk, Roadside Hawk, Red-backed Hawk, Rufous-thighed Hawk, Hook-billed Kite, Barred Forest Flacon, Aplomado Falcon, Spot-flanked Gallinule, Rufous-sided Crake, White-winged Coot, Red-fronted Coot, Purple Gallinule, Wattled Jacana, Chaco Chachalaca, Red-legged Seriema.
Picazuro Pigeon, Picui Ground Dove, White-tipped Dove, Mitred Parakeet, Monk Parakeet, Green-cheeked Parakeet, Scaly-headed Parrot, Turquoise-fronted Parrot, Barn Owl, Tropical Screech Owl, Short-eared Owl, Ashy-tailed Swift, Blue-tufted Starthroat, White-tailed Hummingbird, Glittering-bellied Emerald, Green, White-vented & Sparkling Violetear, White-bellied Hummingbird, Blue-capped Puffleg, Red-tailed Comet, Blue-crowned Trogon, Crowned Motmot, Ringed Kingfisher, Amazon Kingfisher, Green Kingfisher, White-barred & Ocellated Piculet, Dot-fronted Woodpecker, Golden Olive & Golden Green Woodpecker, Cream-backed Woodpecker.
Olivaceus Woodcreeper, Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Azara's Spinetail, Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Common Thornbird, Buff-browed Foliage Gleaner, Giant Antshrike, Ochre faced Tody Flycatcher, Sclater´s Tyrannulet, Slaty Elaenia, Sooty Tyrannulet, Gray crowned Tyrannulet, Scatler´s Tyrannulet, White throated & Buff banded Tyrannulet, Mottled Cheeked Tyrannulet, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Euler’s & Yellow Olive Flycatcher, Pearly vented Tody Tyrant.
Barn Swallow, Southern Martin, Bank Swallow, Rough-winged Swallow, House & Mountain Wren, Spotted Nightingale & Andean Slaty Thrush, Rufous-bellied Thrush, Rusty-browed Warbling Finch, Black-capped Warbling Finch, Lined Seedeater, Ultramarine Grosbeak, Common Bush Tanager, Orange-headed Tanager, Sayaca Tanager, Rust and Yellow Tanager, Guira & Fawn breasted Tanager, Cinnamon-bellied FlowerPierce, Brown-capped Redstart, Two-banded Warbler, Pale-legged & Golden-crowned Warbler, Tropical Parula, Rufous-browed Pepper Shrike, Red-eyed Vireo, Black-backed Grossbeak, Yellow-striped & Stripe-headed Brush Finch, Saffron Finch, Red-crested Finch, Saffron-billed Sparrow, Plush-capped Finch, Golden-billed Saltator, Rufous-bellied Saltator, Purple & Blue-hooded Euphonia, Chestnut-capped Blackbird and Plush-crested Jay.
Near Salta City there are small sectors of yungas, some of them very degraded and with a mix of chaco birds. At 25km north by national road 9, bordering Caldera River is Campo Alegre Lake, a very good place for aquatic birds. A few kilometers further on is the well known Santa Laura Pass with a very good numbers of yungas birds. The road also skirts the edge of some reservoirs in Jujuy province such as La Cienaga Dam and Los Alisos Dam.
Thirty kilometers south of Salta City, by road 68 and 51, near Campo Quijano, is situated Las Lomitas Lake surrounded by luxuriant vegetation. Its the forest called Parque Tucumano, where chaco woodland is mixed with montane forest and the formation of forests in mountain ranges and country fields.
The biggest dam in Salta and second in Argentina is General Manuel Belgrano with Cabra Corral Lake at 80km of the capital by road 68. Being 13000ha , the lake has 180 kilometers of shoreline. South of the lake, in La Viña, there is a sector of 150km of the old national road Nº 9 in connecting with Tucuman province, now as provincial road 6, where it’s possible to find good areas of yungas.
From La Viña the country road crosses the small town of Guachipas in SE direction to El Cebilar, ascending to Carahuasi. In this high place there are many big rocks where there are interesting Indian plants, surrounded of gorges and plenty of forests in mountain ranges. A few kilometers ahead, in Pampa Grande the road begins to go down to El Tala River where there is the best part of yungas, but the conservation of the road is no good in this section and maybe is difficult to follow, with an ordinary car.
Baritú National Park is one of Argentina’s truly tropical national parks, lying north of the Tropic of Capricorn on the border with Bolivia extending to 72,439 ha. It preserves a substantial sector of yungas cloud forest.
From 1974, when this park was created, access has been difficult because the only road passes through Bolivian territory via the border post of Aguas Blancas, at the northern terminus of RN 50. From this point RP19 is going west 34 kilometers to touch south sides of the park continuing by footpath that follows the course of the Lipeo River. Another option is to cross the International Bridge to Bolivia and to take the Pan-American Road that is going northwest to La Maroma. Here turn on the left, crossing by a precarious road the Bermejo River and Argentinean frontier by fords. Next town is El Candado, going until Los Toldos where the Baritu ranger lives.
The best time to visit this park is in winter and spring and its necessary to use a 4x4 truck for to go inside and to see some of these birds:
Small-billed & Tataupa Tinamou, Neotropic Cormorant, Rufescent & Fasciated Tiger Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Cocoi Heron, Striated & Whistling Heron, Great & Snowy Egret, Orinoco Goose, Muscovy & Torrent Duck, Collared Plover, White-backed Stilt, American Wood Stork, Grey-necked Wood Rail, Greater Yellowlegs, Andean Condor, Black Vulture, King Vulture, Lesser Yellow-headed & Turkey Vulture, American Swallow-tailed, Hook-billed & Pearl Kite, White-tailed Kite, Plumbeous & Rufous-thighed Kite, Bicoloured Hawk, Crane Hawk, Great Black & Roadside Hawk, Rufous-thighed Hawk, Savanna Hawk, Red-backed Hawk, Short-tailed & Swainson Hawk, Variable Hawk, White-rumped & White-tailed Hawk, Black and White Hawk Eagle, Aplomado Falcon, Barred Forest Falcon, Bat Falcon, Collared Forest & Peregrine Falcon, Crowned & Solitary Eagle, Ornate Hawk Eagle, Black and Chestnut Eagle, Black-chested Buzzard Eagle, Crested Caracara, American Kestrel, Andean Guan, Dusty-legged (Spix's) & Red-faced Guan, Rufous-sided Crake, Wattlet Jacana, Southern Lapwing, Red-legged Seriema.
Band-tailed Pigeon, Picazuro & Pale-vented Pigeon, Blue Ground Dove, Picui & Ruddy Ground Dove, Eared Dove, White-faced Dove (Large tailed-Yungas Dove), White-tipped Dove, White-throated Quail Dove, Golden-collared & Military Macaw, Green-cheeked Parakeet, Mitred Parakeet, White eyed & Grey-hooded Parakeet, Scaly-headed Parrot, Alder & Turquoise-fronted Amazon, Yellow-billed Cucko, Dark-billed Cuckoo, Guira & Squirrel Cuckoo, Groove-billed & Smooth-billed Ani, Barn Owl, Tropical Screech Owl, Middle American & Black-capped Screech Owl, Ferruginous & Yungas Pygmy Owl, Burrowing Owl, Hoy's Screech Owl, Spectacled Owl, Black-banded & Buff-fronted Owl, Chestnut-banded Nighthawk, Pauraque, Band-winged Nightjar, Little Nightjar, Rufous & Silky-tailed Nightjar, Ashy-tailed Swift, Rothschild’s & White-collared Swift.
Planalto Hermit, Sparkling Violetear, Green & White-vented Violetear, Glittering-bellied Emerald, Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Blue-chested Puffleg, Blue-chested Hummingbird, White-throated Hummingbird, Speckled & White-bellied Hummingbird, Red-tailed Comet, Blue-tufted Starthroat, Slender-tailed Woodstar, Blue-crowned Trogon, Amazon Kingfisher, Green & Ringed Kingfisher, Blue-crowned Motmot, Toco Toucan, Ocellated & White-barred Piculet, Golden-green Woodpecker, Golden Olive & Smoky Brown Woodpecker, Golden-breasted Woodpecker, Dot-fronted Woodpecker, Cream-backed Woodpecker, Lineated & Crimson-crested Woodpecker.
Black-banded Woodcreeper, Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Narrow-billed & Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Cream-winged & White-winged Cinclodes, Puna Canastero, Rufous Hornero, Azara's Spinetail, Ochre-cheeked Spinetail, Sooty-fronted & Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Tufted Tit Tyrant, Common & Spot-breasted Thornbird, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Buff-browed Foliage Gleaner, Streaked Xenops, Giant Antshrike, Great Antshrike, Rufous-capped & Variable Antshrike, Black-capped Antwren, White-throated Antpitta, White Monjita, Streak-throated Bush Tyrant, Black Phoebe, Andean Tyrant, Plumbeous & Cinereous Tyrant, White-winged Black Tyrant, Yellow-browed Tyrant, Cattle Tyrant, Variegated Flycatcher, Vermilion & Piratic Flycatcher, Streaked Flycatcher, Swainson's & Brown-crested Flycatcher, Traill's Flycatcher, Alder Flycatcher, Dusky-capped & Euler's Flycatcher, Fuscous Flycatcher, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Bran-colored & Cliff Flycatcher, Yellow Olive Flycatcher, Suiriri Flycatcher, Golden-crowned & Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Eastern & Tropical Kingbird, Great Kiskadee, Rufous Casiornis, Tropical & Smoke-colored Pewee, Ochre-faced Tody Flycatcher, Southern Scrub Flycatcher, Pearly-vented Tody Tyrant, Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet, White-crested Tirannulet, Sooty & Plain Tyrannulet, White bellied Tyrannulet, White-throated Tyrannulet, Buff-banded Tyrannulet, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Southern Beardless & Sclater's Tyrannulet, Rough-legged Tyrannulet, Grey-crested & Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet, Large Elaenia, White-crested Elaenia, Small-billed & Slaty Elaenia, Highland Elaenia, Grey & Greenish Elaenia.
White-browed Tapaculo, Crested & Green-backed Becard, White-winged Swallow, White-rumped Swallow, Blue and White & Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Brown chested & Southern Martin, Yellowish Pipit, Rufous-throated Dipper, House & Mountain Wren, Brown-backed Mockingbird, Masked Gnatcatcher, Spotted Nightingale Thrush, Swainson's Thrush, Chiguanco Thrush, Glossy Black & Andean Slaty Thrush, Rufous-bellied Thrush, Creamy-bellied & White-necked Thrush, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Common Diuca Finch, Black and chestnut Warbling Finch, Rusty-browed & Black-capped Warbling Finch, Grassland & Saffron Yellow Finch, Blue Black & Dull-colored Grassquit, Double-collared & Lined Seedeater, Band-tailed Seedeater, Grassland Sparrow, Saffron-billed Sparrow, Fulvous-headed Brush Finch, Streak-throated Brush Finch, Yellow striped & Stripe-headed Brush Finch, Red-crested & Plush-capped Finch, Tucuman Mountain Finch, Great Pampa Finch, Red-crested Cardinal, Black-backed & Ultramarine Grosbeak, Pearled Treerunner, Golden-billed & Greyish Saltator, Chestnut-vented Conebill, Golden-rumped & Purple-throated Euphonia, Common Bush Tanager, Orange-headed Tanager, Rust and Yellow Tanager, Guira & Hooded Tanager, Hepatic Tanager, Sayaca Tanager, Blue and Yellow & Fawn-breasted Tanager, Tropical Parula, Slate-throated Whitestart, Brown-capped Whitestart, Masked Yellowthroat, Stripe-capped Sparrow, Two-banded Warbler, Pale-legged & Golden-crowned Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Crested Oropendola, Golden-winged & Solitary Cacique, Epaulet Oriole, Yellow-winged Blackbird, Shiny Cowbird, Bobolink, Bay-wing Cowbird, Hooded Siskin, House Sparrow, Purplish & Plush-crested Jay.
Birding the Chaco Uplands
The Gran Chaco is the largest dry forest in South America and includes wide plains, swamps, dry or seasonally flooded savannas, marshes, salt flats and a great variety of forests and scrublands. It contains representative ecosystems of great biological diversity and a gradient from semi-arid to humid systems and temporary flooded areas. The predominating vegetation is xerophytes deciduous forest with species in 3-4 strata composed by canopy and sub-canopy trees, shrubby understorey and herbaceous grasses, with cacti and bromeliads.
The habitat around the little town of Joaquin V Gonzalez, situated about 200km southeast of Salta is known as dry Chaco. This relatively undisturbed area, connected to Salta City by road 34/9 and 16, consists of a vast, hot, dry and dusty plain covered in scrub woodland where many Chaco specialties can be found. In the neighborhood there are a few sandy trails into the forest that year after year are disappearing because the forest has been cleared and sadly continues. Annually its limits are changing with the advance of the agricultural frontier, which replaces native woodland with crop monocultures.
Northeast of JVG, by provincial road 41, is the best area for seeing last remnant of primary forests with good examples of quebrachos colorados, quebracho blanco, palo santo, guayacan, timbo blanco, laurel Amarillo, and palo borracho. Thorny shrubbery and natural grassy clearings in the surrounding are an excellent chance for to explore in search of many bird species as: the scarce Quebracho Crested Tinamou, Chaco Puffbird, Chaco Owl, Chaco Earthcreeper, Chaco Chachalaca.
Following national road 16, in a southeast direction, crossing crop fields etc. that go on down to Chaco province. Go westward to El Tunal Dam and the course of Juramento River can be a good place to find aquatics birds along its wetland areas near interesting geological formations.
This area is inside the so-called Sud-american Warm Pole with absolute maxims temperatures of 47ºC in summer.
North of JVG, by provincial road 30, is Las Lajitas, at 41km, where still it’s possible to find prime habitat in this impenetrable scrub woodland. In Del Valle River together with other small courses and a few trails along provincial road 52 are good places for to see birds as Black-legged Seriema, Crested Hornero, Chaco Owl, Turquoise-fronted Amazon, Stripe-backed Antbird.
From Las Lajitas, the north option is to take provincial road 5, with very little traffic, to Pichanal, at 173km, or to La Estrella, at 113km, to connect with Calilegua National Park through a sort of transition forest between yungas and chaco type forest. The west road from La Estrella takes many small towns, some of with natural spas as at Aguas Calientes and El Caimancito.
The west option from Las Lajitas is also provincial road 5 to Lumbreras, at 98km, with the opportunity to go into El Rey National Park, in Puesto de La Cruz, where the low level of the park is characterized by old typical chaco habitat, with a mixture of birds of both sides, chaco and yungas.
In Lumbreras, national roads 9 and 34 are superimposed. Southward is going down to Metan, Rosario de la Frontera to Trancas, in the Tucuman province. Northward way goes to General Güemes with connections to Salta City or Jujuy City. Any single road or trail in east directions is good for to see chaco birds, in transitional forests, as a general rule. Some areas are altered by human activities; meanwhile others are very good as the case of Palomitas, a side track where many chaco bird species occur, 25km southward of General Güemes and relatively near to Salta City or Jujuy City.
The Argentinean Chaco, with 625,000km2, represents one of the wildest areas of Argentina and is the home to more than 500 bird species including:
Greather Rhea, Tataupa Tinamou, Elegant-crested & Quebracho-crested Tinamou, Red-winged Tinamou, Brushland Tinamou, Spotted & Darwin's Tinamou, Turkey Vulture, Yellow-headed & Black Vulture, Pearl & White-tailed Kite, Black-shouldered Kite, Plumbeous Kite, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Crowned Solitary Eagle, Swainson's Hawk, Rufous-thighed Hawk, Bicolored Hawk, Savanna & Roadside Hawk, Black-chested Buzzard Eagle, Harris' & White-tailed Hawk, Barred Forest Falcon, Yellow-headed Caracara, Southern Crested & Chimango Caracara, Spot-winged Falconet, American Kestrel, Bat & Aplomado Falcon, Orange-breasted Falcon, Chaco Chachalaca, Spix's (Dusky-legged) Guan, Red-legged & Black-legged Seriema.
Picazuro Pigeon, Pale-vented & Spot-winged Pigeon, Eared Dove, Blue, Ruddy & Picui Ground Dove, White-tipped Dove, Mitred, Blue-crowned & Green-cheeked Parakeet, White-eyed Parakeet, Peach-fronted & Black-hooded Parakeet, Monk & Canary-winged Parakeet, Scaly-headed & Turquoise-fronted Parrot, Ash-colored & Dark-billed Cuckoo, Guira Cuckoo, Striped Cuckoo, Squirrel Cuckoo, Greater & Smooth-billed Ani, Barn Owl, Tropical Screech Owl, Ferruginous Pygmy Owl, Tucuman or Chaco Pygmy Owl, Great Horned Owl, Burrowing Owl, Chaco Owl, Rufous-legged & Striped Owl, Stygian Owl, Short-eared Owl, Common Potoo, Common & Nacunda Nighthawk, Band-winged Nightjar, Little & Scissor-tailed Nightjar, Rothschild's Swift, Ashy-tailed Swift, White-vented Violetear, Sparkling Violetear, Glittering-bellied Emerald, Gilded Sapphire, Blue-tufted Starthroat, Spot-backed Puffbird, White-barred Piculet, Blue-crowned Trogon, White-fronted & Checkered Woodpecker, Golden Green & Golden-breasted Woodpecker, Field Flicker, Black-bodied & Cream-backed Woodpecker, Pale-crested Woodpecker.
Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Scimitar-billed & Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Black-banded & Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Red-billed Scythebill, Chaco Earthcreeper, Rufous & Crested Hornero, Azara's Spinetail, Chotoy Spinetail, Sooty-fronted & Pale-breasted Spinetail, Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Short-billed Canastero, Common & Little Thornbird, Greater & Freckle-breasted Thornbird, Buff-browed Foliage Gleaner, Lesser Shrike Tyrant, Lark-like Brushrunner, Firewood Gathered, Brown Cacholote, Great Antshrike, Barred & Variable Antshrike, Stripe-backed Antbird, White-winged Black Tyrant, Cinereous Tyrant, White Monjita, Gray Monjita, Vermilion Flycatcher, Yellow-browed & Cattle Tyrant, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Variegated & Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Streaked Flycatcher, Great Kiskadee, Swainson's & Brown-crested Flycatcher, Rufous Casiornis, Tropical Pewee, Pearly-vented Tody Tyrant, Tawny-crowned Pygmy Tyrant, White-crested & White-bellied Tyrannulet, Sooty & Plain Tyrannulet, Euler's Flycatcher, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Gray-crowned Tyrannulet, Ochre-faced Tody Tyrannulet, White-napped Xenopsaris, Large & Small-billed Elaenia, Southern Scrub & Suiriri Flycatcher, Southern Bearless Tyrannulet, Crested Gallito, Olive-crowned Crescentchest, Green-backed & White-winged Becard, White-tipped Plantcutter.
White-rumped Swallow, Brown-chested & Gray-breasted Martin, Southern Martin, Rough-winged Swallow, House Wren, Chalk-browed & White-banded Mockingbird, Swainson's Thrush, Rufous-bellied & Creamy-bellied Thrush, Masked Gnatcatcher, Correndera Pipit, Short-billed & Yellowish Pipit, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Tropical Parula, Rufous-browed Pepper Shrike, Red-eyed Vireo, Blue-hooded & Purple-throated Euphonia, Greater Wagtail Tyrant, Blue and Yellow & Sayaca Tanager, Hepatic & Guira Tanager, Ultramarine Grosbeak, Golden-billed & Grayish Saltator, Black-backed Grosbeak, Red-crested Cardinal, Yellow Cardinal, Red crested Finch, Many colored Chaco Finch, Saffron-billed Sparrow, Dark-throated & Double-collared Seedeater, Lined Seedeater, Blue Black & Dull-colored Grassquit, Great Pampa Finch, Grassland Yellow Finch, Saffron Finch, Black-capped Warbling Finch, Ringed & Black and Rufous Warbling Finch, Black-crested Finch, Grassland & Stripe-capped Sparrow, Purplish & Plush-crested Jay, Golden-winged & Solitary Black Cacique, Epaulet Oriole, Chopi Blackbird, White-browed Blackbird, Bay-winged, Screaming & Shiny Cowbird, Hooded Siskin, House Sparrow.
Birding the Chaco Wetlands
The wet habitat in East and Northeast region of Salta province represents a unique ecosystem. Its types of vegetation include non-flooding and annually flooded riverine forests, wetlands, woodlands, savannas, grasslands, halophytic shrubby steppes, and cactus stands. Many birds are living here, such as:
Least Grebe, Pied-billed & White-tufted Grebe, Olivaceus Cormorant, American Anhinga, Pinnated Bittern, Stripe-backed Bittern, Rufescent Tiger Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Whistling & Striated Heron, Cattle, Snowy & Great Egret, Cocoi Heron, Wood Stork & Maguari Stork, Jabiru, Plumbeous & Buff-necked Ibis, Bare-faced & White-faced Ibis, Roseate Spoonbill, Southern Screamer, Fulvous Tree Duck, White-faced & Black-bellied Tree Duck, White-cheeked Pintail, Orinoco Goose, Muscovy Duck, Rosy-billed Pochard, Speckled & Cinnamon Teals, Comb & Brazilian Duck, Ringed Teal, Yellow-billed Pintail, Blue-winged Teal, Black-headed, Masked & Lake Duck, Osprey, Snail & Missisippi Kite, Crane Hawk, Cinereus & Long-winged Harrier, Great Black Hawk, Black-collared Hawk, Grey & Short-tailed Hawk, Limpkin, Plumbeous & Spotted Rail, Gray-necked & Giant Wood Rail, Yellow-breasted & Ash-throated Crake, Rufous-sided & Paint-billed Crake, Spot-flanked, Common & Purple Gallinule, Red-gartered, White-winged & Red-fronted Coot, Wattled Jacana, South American Painted Snipe, White-backed Stilt, Southern Lapwing, Collared Plover, Common Snipe, Gray-hooded Gull, Large-billed Tern, Black Skimmers.
Ringed Kingfisher, Amazon & Green Kingfisher, Greater & Smooth-billed Ani, Sickle-winged Nightjar, Yellow-throated Spinetail, Wren-like Rushbird, Gray Monjita, Spectacled Tyrant, Pied water Tyrant, White-headed Marsh Tyrant, Dinelli's & Crested Doradito, Warbling Doradito, Tawny-headed, Rough-winged, Bank & Barn Swallow, Purple Martin, White-winged Swallow, Rusty-collared Seedeater, Masked Yellowthroat, Chestnut-Vented Conebill, Yellow-winged, Unicolored & Chestnut-capped Blackbird, Brown and Yellow Marshbird, Scarlet-headed Blackbird.